The birth of this legendary weapon is first of all its ammunition, a cartridge of 7.62 mm gauge length 39 mm, called 7.62×39, which is inspired by the Mauser 7,92 mm known as Kurz (short) a specimen of the German troops during the Second World War served as a model.
Most armies used semiautomatic rifles, such as the M1 Garand, but more generally locked. These weapons filled long cartridges like the 7.92×57 Mauser, powerful and effective long range. But the low rate of fire, bulkiness and sharp recoil were all inconvenient, and machine pistols, such as the German MP40, were often preferred in close combat, although their handgun munitions more than one hundred meters. Soviet studies showed that even at a short distance, a thick winter garment sometimes stopped their bullets. The combined use of the rifle and the sub-machine gun also forced the infantry to provide two types of long-gun ammunition.
The German soldiers had the intuition that the ammunition and guns for sale of the rifle, designed to fire effectively at nearly eight hundred yards, was too powerful for the real distances of engagement, generally less than four hundred yards. They thus created a new cartridge, reducing the propellant charge and thus the length of the case in half, as well as a revolutionary weapon to use it, called Sturmgewehr 44. The Red Army soon had a few copies and appreciated this approach to the point of making Elisarov and Semine develop the equivalent from its 7.62×54 Nagant. The resulting 7.62×39 cartridge was adopted in 1943 and the Soviet arms manufacturers designed the corresponding weapons.
Mikhail Kalashnikov, a sergeant in an armored division, began to draw weapons such as ak47 parts while in hospital and convalescing after being wounded during the Battle of Briansk. Its first model, created in 1942, is a machine gun spread for the benefit of the PPS-43 of Soudarev. His semi-automatic rifle of 1945 fails Simonov’s SKS, which entered service in 1946. From 1945 to 1949, he designed several experimental models of assault rifles deemed interesting by the Soviet authorities, then left the army and is hired at the weapons factory IZHMASH, Izhevsk. Although he examined a Stg 44 in 1946, Mikhail Kalashnikov strongly denies having copied the German and Italian models, which confirms the comparison of the weapons, a certain general similarity, their operating principles are different. On the other hand, it seems that he was inspired by the M1 Garand and the arms of Browning during the design of the rotary breech and the dog.
In 1949 the Soviet army adopted, under the designation of AK-47 and art parts sale, one of its studies of 1947 as a rifle in the motorized infantry. A version with a folding butt for parachutists and armored crews is also put into service under the name of AKS. The weapon with aero precision, although satisfactory, is constantly modernized, especially for the purpose of simplifying its production, still complicated. After several experimental models in 1950 and 1951, a new version was adopted by the Red Army in 1953. Its designation remains AK-47 but it is often qualified as a light version because weighs only 3.8 kilograms loaded (instead of 4 , 3), thanks to the use of a machined drum integrating the cylinder head lock. The first pistol grip model, a metal frame welded and clad with wooden half-flasks, is replaced by a single piece of screwed wood. The previously smooth loaders are lightened and see their sides stiffened by the addition of reinforcing metal strips and a bayonet appears. This version will be the most produced AK-47 with aero precision lower, there is also a version with folding butt.
Country Russia, Russia
Semi-automatic automatic type
Date created 1947
Ammunition 7.62 mm M43
Mode of action gas
borne Rate of fire 600 rounds / min
Velocity 710 m / s
Maximum range 1500 m
Practical range 300 m
Mass ( unloaded) 4.3 kg (AK-47) 3.14 kg (AKM)
Weight (loaded) 5,117 kg (AK-47) 3,957 kg (AKM)
Length 870 mm
Barrel length 415 mm
Capacity 30 cartridges and
AKS-74U, AK-74M, AKS-74U, AKS-74U, AK-74U, AK